Friday, January 9, 2009

Reia and object-aware concurrency

Concurrency is perhaps the foremost issue today's programmers must learn to cope with. CPU designers have exhausted the level of optimization they can provide to programmers working with a single thread of execution, and more modern designs take transistors which would've ordinarily gone to improve sequential performance and have instead thrown it at more cores. Intel demoed a CPU with 80 cores, yet one third of the transistors seen in a Core 2 Duo. This is the future of processors: more cores that do less. CPU designers are going to devote fewer transistors to each individual core while trying to pack more and more cores onto a single chip. Some crazy people are predicting that the number of CPU cores we see on a single chip is going to grow exponentially. I don't know about that, but it's a reasonable enough guess as any at this point, and it seems like it's where the trends are going.

This is posing a big problem for programmers. Now that all of these cores are available, how do you write programs that can make use of them all? The typical way most programmers are used to dealing with this problem is with threads. Threads let you spread your program's execution across multiple CPU cores, which is great! But threads are error-prone. The synchronization is as hard to get right as manual memory management. Pay attention and use good strategies and it's manageable. Put it in the hands of mediocre programmers and things can quickly fall apart. And once they do it can be incredibly hard to debug.

But it gets worse. Let's assume you've managed to use threads correctly in your program. Great! How well can it scale across an increasing number of CPU cores? The synchronization model employed by most programs uses a locking mechanism to synchronize state. To get a threaded program to scale well, locks must be scrutinized, benchmarked, and made increasingly granular in order for threaded programs to scale well. While this is all well and doable, granular locking is complicated, and the reality is most programs trying to pull it off aren't going to do it right, and for that reason many programmers may avoid it entirely.

So how well will programmers be able to leverage these new multicore CPUs? That question remains up in the air. Threaded approaches are difficult at best, and often hard to scale across an increasing number of CPU cores, especially when complex data structures are involved. For that reason some perceive that programmers are in a sort of crisis in regard to how they will leverage an increasing number of CPU cores.

Some solutions to this problem have emerged. One that gets a lot of attention is software transactional memory. This is a model which looks at memory in a manner similar to a database, using transactions to control concurrent access to shared state. Unfortunately this model has failed to achieve widespread popularity. Theories abound as to what exactly the problem is, generally surrounding its difficulty to apply to real-world problems. So far, this approach to concurrency remains in the collective unconscious as a theoretical one which is rarely applied.

Another approach which has received a considerable amount of hype in certain communities is "Erlang style-concurrency." Erlang is a programming language originally developed for telephony applications which uses lots of small processes that each do one thing and do it well, and talk to each other over message queues. Some liken this to the Unix philosophy: "Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together." However the actual approach of using processes which communicate with messages is known as the Actor model which grew out of Smalltalk.

Erlang processes have lots of nice properties which make concurrency easy. Like OS processes they run simultaneously and the Erlang runtime can distribute them across all available CPU cores with no additional work on the programmer's part. They are pre-emptable: if a process is doing something computationally intensive then after a certain number of "reductions" (e.g. function calls) the Erlang scheduler will pre-empt it and let another process to run. Erlang processes don't share state and can be garbage collected independent of one another. This means there's no "stop the world" condition with the garbage collector. But also, by not sharing state synchronization gets much easier. Now you don't have to synchronize access to shared state, instead you need to synchronize the way your program behaves, which is a far easier problem.

Last year I began working on an Actor model implementation for Ruby called Revactor. It had many of the features seen in Erlang: concurrent "processes" with message boxes and the ability to selectively receive messages from them. However, two things deferred me from continuing to work on Revactor: first, it was slow. Its messaging speed between two processes was nearly two orders of magnitude slower than Erlang, as was the process creation speed. Second, and probably the larger issue, was how much overlap I felt existed between Actors and objects. Actors did many of the same things objects did, but actors and objects did not play well together.

After seeing how much slower Actors in Ruby worked compared to Erlang, I decided to try a different approach entirely. If Actors couldn't come to Ruby, perhaps I could try bringing Ruby to Erlang. In early 2008 I started tinkering with a Ruby-like language on top of Erlang called Reia. Reia brings with it an object model which works on top of the Erlang process and messaging model. Like other object models objects in Reia communicate with messages, but rather than being some metaphorical construct, Reia objects quite literally communicate with messages.

This approach marks a rapid departure from most other object oriented languages. Most object oriented languages have a concurrency primitive like threads which are completely divorced from objects. Threads give you no guarantees about how state is managed or synchronized, and threads have no knowledge of method invocation. In Reia, all objects are concurrent and synchronize around the method dispatch protocol. You can think of each object as being its own thread, except each object's state is independent of all of the others, so there's no need for semaphores or mutexes or critical sections. All synchronization is handled through message dispatch itself, and thanks to the shared-nothing process architecture you only need to worry about synchronizing behavior, not state.

Furthermore, Reia gives you deep hooks into the method dispatch process, allowing objects to asynchronously respond to method calls, to invoke methods asynchronously, or to asynchronously get the response of a method call. This small grab bag of asynchronous tricks allows you to quickly and easily begin adding concurrency into your programs while still preserving the traditional method dispatch approach seen in object oriented languages.

Will this object-aware approach to concurrency and synchronization actually gain traction with programmers? It's hard to say, however it's clear that the other approaches aren't doing so well either. With the number of cores available to programmers skyrocketing, I think it's clear solutions are needed. Only time will tell which ones are actually successful.

298 comments:

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Mark William said...

Get Microsoft 365 setup by visiting microsoft365.com/setup. Sign in to Microsoft account, enter the product key and get apps quickly. Download & use Microsoft365 setup wizard using microsoft365.com/setup site, follow instructions and install apps.Go to www.microsoft365/setup to get all the MS office 365 apps on your devices like Windows, Mac, and smartphones.

Mark William said...

Follow cricut.com/setup and it is the online portal that allows you to set up your Cricut machine. A most advanced Cricut machine is best in cutting shapes, text, and photos. It doesn’t only make cuts on card stock or vinyl but adhesive foil, faux leather, balsa wood, and more. So how do you start your circuit machine? You have to download Cricut setup from www.cricut.com/setup, then connect your machine and software to get started.

Sophia Williams said...

Thanks for sharing such great information with us. Very nice and well-explained article. If you want to know how to purchase a Microsoft 365 subscription, then visit microsoft365.com/setup | office.com/myaccount

Activate setup said...

To activate Trend micro, make sure you already have an activation code that you’ll probably enter on the trendmicro activate site. www.trendmciro.com/activate | www.trendmicro/activate | trend micro activation

Activate setup said...

Canon Pixma TS3322 is a multi-functional printer, which enables you to perform many actions including, print, copy, and scan, all at once. ij.start.cannon/ts3322 , ij.start.canon/ts3322

Activate setup said...

Sign in to your COX Webmail account to send or receive new Address Book messages, handle spam messages, access advanced email devices.
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jacksmith1793 said...

Microsoft 365 is the best way to get all the apps of Office within one subscription. Microsoft365.com/setup , Microsoft365.com/setup . ij.start canon is the manufacturer site to download Canon printer drivers ij.start.canon , ij.start canon , ij.start.canon , ij.start.cannon

mack zayn said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
mack zayn said...

Microsoft 365 or Office on your computer. If you are using any other Microsoft service such as OneDrive, Outlook, Skype, or Xbox Live, it means you already have an account that you can use for any Microsoft activity.
Microsoft365.com/setup
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www.microsoft365/setup

mack zayn said...

New purchase? ij.start.canon should be used to set up your Canon printer. Even you purchased a new printer, or you have the older Canon model. Both are easy to set up, where Canon printer drivers are essential to download.
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steeve00004 said...

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amelia said...

Cox Email Login is an online login portal that the company provides to its customers enabling them to operate 10 email accounts each capable of 2 GB storage.
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Anonymous said...

Camps Intuit is the portal that provides you the QuickBooks business accounting and management software available. You can download the software with camps.intuit.com , camps.intuit.com , skybet login , www.trendmicro.com/activate , trend micro activation .

Activate setup said...

Several factors matter when you choose the Microsoft 365 subscription. Depending on your requirements on the respective productivity platforms, these products are different in price. microsoft365.com/setup

technoblogs said...

A Quick Guide to Canon Printer Setup
Make sure your printer hardware is configured.
On your PC browser, go to canon.com/ijsetup.
Click Set Up.
Using your Canon IJ printer model, the download printer software.
Double click to install it.
Connect a network to your printer and PC.
Finish the Canon IJ printer setup.
LaserJet Printer Setup
Configure your HP Printer hardware. Visit 123.hp.com/laserjet from the browser. Using your LaserJet model name, download software. Double click to start the installation. Connect the printer via wireless network or USB. Add the LaserJet printer to your system devices.Finish the HP LaserJet setup.

technoblogs said...

microsoft365.com/setup allows you to download and activate the Microsoft Office setup. Microsoft 365 plans for personal and home provides robust Office desktop apps including Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, and OneNote.Microsoft 365 subscribers can always install the latest version of MS Office and get frequent software updates. If you have a Microsoft account, sign in and enter the product key at microsoft365.com/setup to activate your product. Install and set up your Office 365 apps with the given instructions.

koko said...

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امروز کالا said...

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Confidus Solutions said...

Top jurisdictions for founding an IT and software development company
As more and more legal systems open up to foreign trade, companies can gain access to a large pool of resources abroad. They can build relationships with foreign partners and move their production abroad or simply export their products to new markets. IT and software development companies are also trying to profit from relocating production to foreign jurisdictions.

In general, the main advantage of relocating software development abroad is the lower costs compared to the home country. For example, the cost of developing the exact same software in India is 50% less than in the US. The savings generally result from lower labor costs, but moving IT and software production abroad can also give the company access to a wider pool of workers with higher skills and knowledge. This could explain why 50% of America's Fortune 500 companies use offshore IT and software development. Let's look at some of the jurisdictions where opening a software development business might be more beneficial compared to others and discuss why.

http://www.confiduss.com/en/info/blog/article/top-it-company-jurisdictions/

finley jordan said...

Defend against the unknown threats and proceed for Trend micro download with www.trendmicro.com/activate having Advanced Machine Learning Technology. Trend micro security is the best way to save your Connected World to all the digital part. Install www.trendmicro/activate from the official site and get the trend micro activation key to complete the process.




Allen said...

Canon printers are ideal for every situation wherever you need a document, paper, or photo print or even if you wish to scan, fax, and do more i Ij.start canon
ij.start.canon
canon.com/ijsetup

Allen said...

Microsoft365.com/setup
is an official portal to activate and start your Microsoft 365 product including office apps, cloud services and other collaboration services. You’ll need to Sign In and enter the Microsoft 365 product key.

olivilajhon08@gmail.com said...

Several factors matter when you choose the Microsoft 365 subscription. Depending on your requirements on the respective productivity platforms, these products are different in price. MS 365 is a cloud-based subscription productivity suite best suitable for individuals, businesses, and homes as users don’t have to worry about updates or any custom-related features
microsoft365.com/setup
Microsoft365.com/setup

olivilajhon08@gmail.com said...


These printers are best to use in industries due to precise print, speed, and economical features. Instead of ink, these models use toner powder to print. Though, LaserJet printers are costly than inkjet printers for home users but affordable and best for businesses, industries, and large organizations.
123.hp.com/laserjet,
https //ij.start.cannon,
http //ij.start.canon

Anonymous said...

Before beginning to print with your newly-purchased HP wireless printer, you need to make certain preparations that include the device hardware setup, positioning and placement, the power supply, and the PC’s connectivity www.hp.com/go/wirelessprinting ,camps.intuit.com , camps.intuit.com .

Microsof365setup said...

office setup product key is a secured
25 digit alphanumeric code series xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx.
This activation key can be used summarily to install and activate
the product with ease. One can effortlessly access more information
about these product keys at office products today.


Regards

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